Learning English: Adverbs


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Mari kita lanjutkan pelajaran kita tentang English Grammar. Kali ini kita akan membahas tentang Adverbs. Adverbs digunakan untuk memberikan informasi lebih tentang tindakan/action dalam sebuah kalimat . Mereka terutama memodifikasi kata kerja/verbs. Mereka memberitahu kita.. bagaimana?, dimana?, kapan?.. dst, sesuatu yang terjadi atau terselesaikan.

Contoh:

Carol drives carefully. (How does she drive?)
I looked for her everywhere. (Where did you look for her?)
She came to London yesterday. (When did she come to London?)

Adverbs umumnya dibagi menjadi tujuh kelompok:

1) Cara/Manner: slowly, bravely, carefully, simply, quietly…
2) Tempat/Place: there, here, up, down, near…
3) Waktu/Time: yesterday, tomorrow, now, yet, still…
4) Seringnya/Frekuensi/Frequency: never, always, often, once, twice…
5) Kalimat/Pernyataan/Sentence: actually, really, obviously, evidently…
6) Tingkat/Degree: very, quite, rather, fairly, hardly…
7) Konsentrasi/Focus: just, only, simply, even, also…

MEMBENTUK ADVERBS

Adverbs umumnya dibentuk dari adjectives.

Banyak dari adverbs of manner and degree dibentuk dengan menambahkan -ly pada akhir dari  adjectives.

slow – slowly happy – happily
cold – coldly rapid – rapidly
bad – badly kind – kindly

I don’t know why, but they spoke to me coldly.
The weather was awfully cold.
You should treat people gently.
Please, drive the car slowly.


Ketika sebuah  adjective berakhir dengan  consonant + y, ia menjadi -ly.
Misalnya:
busy – busily
happy – happily
easy – easily
dry – drily (or dryly)

She is working busily.
Chuck passed the test easily.


Ketika sebuah adjective berakhir dengan -le, kita hilangkan huruf -e and tambahkan -(l)y
Contoh:
noble – nobly
possible – possibly
simple – simply
gentle – gently

Contoh: My mom brushes my hair gently every day.


Ketika sebuah kata sifat/ adjectives berakhir dengan -e, ia tidak dihilangkan dan ditambahkan -ly.
Contoh:
extreme – extremely
free – freely
brave – bravely
safe – safely

His political ideas are extremely dull.
Our army fought bravely.


Ketika sebuah kata sifat/ adjective berakhir dengan -ic, kita tambahkan -ally.
Contoh:
Systematic – systematically
Phonetic – phonetically

We searched the attic systematically.
Mrs. Burns wanted us to write the words phonetically.

TINGKATAN  ADVERBS

  • Positive : Mengekspresikan sebuah kualitas tanpa perbandingan, contoh: Ivan walks slowly.
  • Comparative : Mengekspresikan perbandingan lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah dari positive. Contoh:
    Ida walks faster than Ivan.
  •  Superlative : Mengekspresikan yang paling tinggi atau yang paling rendah tingkatannya ketika membandingkan lebih dari satu sesuatu/orang. Contoh: Brad walks slowest.

1. Adverbs memiliki bentuk yang sama dengan kata sifat:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
fast faster the fastest
early earlier the earliest
late later the latest
hard harder the hardest

They came earlier than me.
Kenyans always win prizes in marathons because they run the fastest of all.
My parents’ plane will arrive later than my uncle’s.

2. Adverbs dibentuk dengan menambahkan  –ly.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
easily more easily most easily
quickly more quickly most quickly
fluently more fluently most fluently
carefully more carefully most carefully

Linda drives more carefully than her husband.
Elizabeth speaks English the most fluently.

3. Irregular adverbs

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
well better the best
badly worse the worst
far father / further the farthest / the furthest
much more the most

Who speaks English the best?
They do everything worse than us.

 Sumber: English Grammar & http://www.grammarbank.com/

sumber gambar: http://www.google.co.id

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